Italy emerged from a fascist dictatorship under Benito Mussolini to become a democracy after World War II, later helping to found both NATO and the European Union. Having enjoyed a prolonged economic boom beginning in the 1940s, Italy has since suffered from economic stagnation and political paralysis, as well as government malfeasance typified by the misdeeds of former Prime Min Silvio Berlusconi . Matteo Renzi , who replaced Enrico Letta as prime minister in 2014, faces the challenge of shaking the country out of its economic malaise and rooting out corruption.
(Same as AFRS 378 and ENGL 378) This multidisciplinary course examines black cultural productions in Paris from the first Conference of Negro-African writers and artists in 1956 to the present. While considered a haven by African American artists, Paris, the metropolitan center of the French empire, was a more complex location for African and Afro-Caribbean intellectuals and artists. Yet, the city provided a key space for the development and negotiation of a black diasporic consciousness. This course examines the tensions born from expatriation and exile, and the ways they complicate understandings of racial, national and transnational identities. Using literature, film, music, and new media, we explore topics ranging from modernism, jazz, Négritude, Pan-Africanism, and the Présence Africaine group, to assess the meanings of blackness and race in contemporary Paris. Works by James Baldwin, Aime Césaire, Chester Himes, Claude McKay, the Nardal sisters, Richard Wright. Ousmane Sembène, Mongo Beti, among others, are studied.