There are three English translations, one by . Brill in 1910, another by James Strachey in 1949 published by Imago Publishing.  Strachey's translation is generally considered superior, including by Freud himself.  The third translation, by Ulrike Kistner, was published by Verso Books in 2017. Kistner's translation is at the time of its publishing the only English translation available of the earlier 1905 edition of the Essays. The 1905 edition theorizes an autoerotic theory of sexual development, without recourse to the Oedipal complex.